Unit aim: This unit is designed to meet the needs of construction managers, to give them knowledge of developing and managing people.
Recognition of Prior Learning
If you have successfully completed the CIOB Level 3 Diploma in Site Supervisory Studies with the Construction Learning Gateway you will be exempt a number of sections of this unit as work you produced in that qualification will count as Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL).
This unit has an Introduction and is divided into 3 study sections.
Section 1 Managing People(Partial Exemption for holders of the Level 3 Diploma in Site Supervisory Studies)
6.1.2 Leadership (Exempt with Level 3)
6.1.3 Monitoring and feedback to people
6.3.1 Training Benefits
6.3.2 Training Needs
6.3.3 Continued Professional Development (CPD)
Unit Recommended Reading
Loosemore, M, Dainty, A and Lingard, H (2003) Human Resource Management in Construction project: Taylor and Francis; London
Books can be ordered from most bookshops or online from Amazon.
Before starting you should read the ‘Study Guide’ accessible from the link on the left.
The most import resource that a company has is the people that work for it. As a manager it is essential that you are able to get the best from this resource and maximise its output. This will require you to be able to manage people and this entails not only organising what they are to do but also to motivate them in order to ensure they do it. It also entails dealing with any problems that may occur with their work or behaviour.
Another aspect to maximise employees’ potential is ensuring that they are trained appropriately for their job and consideration is given to the future needs of the individual and the company with regard to the skills that are, or will be needed in the future.
In this unit we will look at the skills and knowledge you will need in order to develop and manage people on site.
All information contained in this Study Unit was considered correct at the time of writing but Students must not rely on information contained in the Study Unit and/or references for any purposes other than use within this CIOB qualification aim as legislation and working practices are constantly being revised and updated. Students are advised therefore to continually up-date themselves as to current legislation and construction practice and must not to rely on information contained within the Study Unit and/or references for practical applications in the workplace. Where legislation or construction practice has been superseded to that contained in the Study Unit Students should note this within their responses to the tasks.
Section 1. Managing People
Learning outcome: On completion the learner will: Know some of the aspects related to managing people.
6.1.2 Leadership (Exempt with Level 3)
6.1.3 Monitoring and feedback to people
For any project it is essential that the person in charge is able to manage and control the people who are working on the project. To do this requires not only knowledge of the way the work is carried out but also knowledge of the ways that people work and their reasons for working: This will then able you to get the best from them by motivating them to do what you want them to do.
A 'motive' is an internal force pushing a person towards a desired goal, or a fear making them retreat from an undesired goal.
Motives are therefore, drives, needs or wants, and can be divided into two groups:
Physiological: e.g. food, drink, sleep, shelter, warmth etc.
Psychological: e.g. friendship, approval, self-esteem etc.
Human beings put their needs in a system of priority rankings whereby physiological needs come first. After these are satisfied the order of priority will depend on the individual and his/her circumstances.
The main factors which affect a person’s motivation are:
Personality ‑ aspirations, expectations, ambition and aptitude.
Economic and Social Status ‑ a blue collar worker may be more interested in job security and earning more than a white collar worker who may be interested in status.
Age and Family Circumstances ‑ a person with a young family will possibly be more interested in overtime to pay for the upkeep of their children, than someone who is older, with grown up children.
Group Goals ‑ these can determine the attitude of its members, as people want to be accepted by the group.
When trying to motivate people it is important to know the type of person s/he is, and what are their wants and needs.
There are a number of Motivation Theories these include:
An incentive is an objective goal which has been set up in order to tap motivation, this is usually financial as it tends to get people to work harder. They are commonly used in manufacturing and the construction industry though it is important that they comply to the following:
Operatives should know what they have to do for how much, and this should be related to output.
Output and quality should be attainable by the average employee.
Payment should be as soon as the job is finished.
Once targets are set they should not be made more difficult.
No restriction should be placed on the level of earnings.
Incentive schemes are used to increase productivity, efficiency and earning opportunities. They encourage good labour relations and encourage workers to remain with the company.
People tend to adjust their behaviour to fit in with others around them, their expectations, roles, responsibilities and the organisation's demands. The situation (workplace, home etc) is an important determinant of motivational behaviour.
Motivation theory suggests that individual behaviour at work will be linked to satisfying these needs. Therefore, if a job is designed in a way that meets these needs, then the worker will perform well as s/he will be satisfying both personal and organisational requirements. Modern job design schemes invariably recognise these precepts, but it is sometimes difficult to put them into action.
The main theories relating to motivation are:
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Alderfer's need hierarchy
Herzberg's two-factor theory of motivation
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Abraham Maslow (1908 – 1970) stated that man has five basic needs arranged in a hierarchy of priorities like a pyramid. At the bottom are physiological needs i.e. hunger, thirst, warmth, shelter etc. Once these are satisfied a person moves up to the next priority which are safety needs i.e. security and protection. When secure and protected s/he will look for love and affection. The next step is esteem needs of self respect, confidence, adequacy and achievement; and finally self-fulfilment by creativity or power.
Physiological - hunger, thirst, sex etc.
Safety - protection from danger, threat, deprivation.
Social - belonging, association, acceptance, giving and receiving friendship and love
Self-actualization - realizing ones potential and continued self-development.
In this model human motives are seen as a pyramid of ascending needs and goals. At the bottom are the most basic needs, as progress is made towards the top, the needs and the goals become more complex. Maslow’s pyramid is shown in Figure 6.1.1.
Figure 6.1.1 Maslow's Pyramid
What distinguishes the different levels of Maslow's hierarchy is 'prepotence': the relative strength of the different needs. In this view, the stronger needs are lower on the hierarchy. The general rule is that once the lower needs are satisfied, the higher ones can be sought. However, not all people follow the pyramid, some will miss out levels while others reverse levels in order of importance.
Modern psychologists, particularly in the USA, believe that Maslow's pyramid of motivation is a general and somewhat idealistic scheme. While thirst is certainly more basic than self-actualization, employees often satisfy many different needs at one time. The hierarchy does not really work for the higher end. Many writers now consider that esteem, knowledge etc are more equivalent to one another than Maslow presumed. Also, the importance of the different levels may vary between individuals.
Alderfer's Need Hierarchy
Clayton Alderfer (1940 - ) produced a theory which incorporates three levels of need; Existence (material and physiological desires e.g. salary), Relatedness (social contact or friendship e.g. supervision) and Growth (using skills and abilities and developing potential e.g. interesting job). This is commonly given the acronym ERG.
Unlike Maslow, Alderfer places less emphasis on the hierarchical organisation of component factors. This is a rational theory which infers that work has to provide for all three of these ideas, but the Growth aspect is the most important. If employees do not enjoy their work they will not like doing it, and this must, by inference, lead to a lowering of productivity and job satisfaction. Whilst this theory is considered to be current, very little appears to have been published on its applicability to the workplace.
A great deal of work was carried out by Douglas McGregor (1906 – 1964) in the 1950s conceptualizing assumptions about human nature.
McGregor labelled people as either Theory X types or Theory Y.
Theory X According to McGregor theory X people are innately lazy, irresponsible, self-centred. They dislike work and are indifferent to the needs of the organisation. Because of these traits they need to be threatened, coerced and controlled and in fact prefer to be directed and controlled. Their main concern is security and they will avoid responsibility.
Theory Y people are the opposite. They have a high capacity for developing an interest in work and will commit themselves to organisational objectives. They will work with a minimum of supervision and external controls.
In dealing with Theory X types it would be expected that an autocratic managerial style would be more effective. Whilst Theory Y types would be more receptive to the type of motivators advocated by Maslow and Herzberg such as job satisfaction and non monetary rewards.
McGregor basis his theory on the average person, certainly a number of people will fall within his model, however, not all things, let alone persons, can fit neatly into the boxes that McGregor has produced.
Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory of Motivation
Frederick Herzburg (1923 – 2000) suggested there are two distinct categories of factors related to people’s attitudes to work, these are classified as:
Hygiene Factors - These are not motivators and they will not get people to work harder, though if these factors are not satisfactory employees will become Dissatisfied and this will result in reduced output or high labour turnover. Such factors are:
Company policies and administration
Status and Security
Social relationships at work
Motivating Factors - These have a positive and long lasting effect and can be attributed to job satisfaction. Such factors are:
Recognition of achievement
Herzburg suggested enriching the job which could be done by removing controls, increasing accountability and authority for the employee to plan his/her job. Give him/her new and more difficult tasks, keep him/her well informed, and allow him/her to develop his/her own capabilities.
A major criticism of Herzberg's theory is that the results he obtained were 'artificial' and reflected an inherent weakness involved in data collection. People will naturally disassociate themselves from unfavourable events, and ascribe causes to external factors, but they will always recognise their own importance in successful outcomes.
This considers the influence of perception on workers.
What has to be recognized here is that effort and performance are not always directly related. Many people will have been driving a vehicle for many years, yet they cannot expect to have the same skill level as Damian Hill in a high speed motor race. However, many people can attain a basic level of competence in many tasks, providing they put in the time and effort. Belief in one's ability to reach certain performance targets is a vital component for achievement.
Perception considers in some depth the relationship between performance and rewards and breaks them into two parts: intrinsic (challenge, achievement, success) and extrinsic (pay, promotion, fringe benefits etc). The level of satisfaction depends on how near the rewards are to what the employee perceives as equitable for the services rendered. This suggest that not only should jobs be designed or redesigned (job enrichment) so that they are challenging, with variety and autonomy, but that monetary rewards should be provided and equated with 'perceived equitable rewards'. Therefore, there should be a match between the employees traits and abilities and the requirements for the job.
The value of the goals will also affect behaviour (and motivation). For example, whilst employees may value promotion as a goal, they quite often (wrongly) believe that however hard they work it will not be recognised in terms of advancement. Therefore, they will be less motivated to put in any extra effort as it would be 'a waste of time'.
Perception Theory can be further divided into:
Victor Vroom proposed in 1964 that each person allocated a value of attractiveness to a perceived outcome, and an expectancy that an action would lead to that outcome.
Values are given the desirability of an outcome as either + or ‑, the higher the + value the more desirable, the higher the ‑ value the more the undesirable; zero denotes indifference.
A person will perform well if s/he can expect to achieve an outcome and it has a high positive value.
John Adams proposed in 1963 that job performance and satisfaction is determined by the amount of equity or inequity that a person perceives in the work situation. This is determined by the amount of effort s/he puts in to the amount of money s/he gets out, compared to another person.
The theory focuses on the person’s perception rather than on reality with satisfaction resulting if s/he perceives equity. The comparison is made with others and can be on the basis of age, skill, education, seniority, effort, fitness, risk or sex.
If equity does not exist it can lead to tension and result in the person trying to balance things up. This s/he can do by:
Altering his/her effort
Improving his/her skill or qualification
Trying to effect change in others
Distorting his/her perception of things
Changing the object of comparison
Opt out or leave job
This is similar to the equity theory but relies on the difference between the reward and the person’s perception of an equitable reward without reference to other people.
In considering the above theories what they all seem to point to is that employees need to be treated fairly and to perceive this element of fairness. As every individual is different, then invariably, outputs will themselves be different and a different approach will be required to motivate each person.
Task 6.1.1 Motivation
Discuss the factors which are likely to increase the motivation of site personnel.
For a group to be effective it must have strong leadership. The leader should be capable of defining and abiding by company policies and procedures and set a good example for others to follow.
To maintain an effective group the leader must reduce tension and resolve differences. He must also maintain cohesion within the group, and inspire its members. He may be required to represent the feelings of his group to others in the organisation and may therefore, subconsciously, take on the group personality, sharing their values, goals and motives.
Bad leadership leads to a lack of direction, dedication and assertiveness. This can produce indecision and failure to reach objectives.
Managerial behaviour with regard to leadership can be classified by two approaches:
This is concerned with production. Here the desire is to get the task completed as efficiently as possible. Goals are defined and problems outlined, suggestions and ideas are then offered as a course of action, these are then evaluated and progress checked.
This is concerned with people. Socially orientated managers strive to create a harmonious climate within the group. They encourage group members, show regard for the feelings and welfare of the group, attempt to reconcile discord, reduce tension, ensure group members contribute to decisions and attempts to improve group efficiency by collaboration.
Leaders may also be classed as being one of the following types:
Here the leader determines all group policies without consultation. Group productivity may be high but people will not work on their own initiative, also apathy and hostility are common.
This allows complete freedom within the group as the leader does not direct effort. This produces low productivity and inferior quality. The group will also not work on its own initiative.
The leader encourages and assists group members in making decisions. Productivity is high and considerable originality is shown by the group while hostility is negligible. The group also works on its own initiative.
Also to be considered are the four styles of leadership as distinguished by Rensis Likert. These are:
1. The Exploitive ‑ Authoritive system
This style of leader imposes decisions on subordinates. Motivation is characterised by threats. High level management have great responsibility, while low levels have very little. This results in little communication and no team work.
2. The Benevolent ‑ Authoritive system
Leadership here is by a condescending master ‑ servant relationship. Motivation is achieved mainly by rewards. Managerial personnel feel responsible, lower levels do not. Once again there is little communication and teamwork.
3. The Consultative system
Leadership is provided by superiors having substantial but not complete trust in subordinates. Motivation is by rewards and some involvement. A high proportion of personnel feel responsibility for achieving organisational goals. This results in some communication and moderate amount of teamwork.
4. The Participative ‑ group system
Leadership is provided by superiors having complete confidence in subordinates. Motivation is by economic rewards based on joint goals and all personnel feel responsibility for achieving organisational goals. Good communication and teamwork.
Task 6.1.2 Leadership
Discuss the Site Managers role in the organisation and State the leadership style that you consider you use, explaining and giving examples of why you believe that this style appertains to you.
6.1.3 Monitoring and feedback to people
Part of the process of managing people involves monitoring not only their work, but also them as people. This involves assessing their behaviour and progress. This ensures their performance is satisfactory and that they are provided with feedback on their performance and provided them with guidance with regard their future requirements.
The process of monitoring involves the direct observation of employees and from obtaining feedback on them from other people, both within the organisation and from outside.
A great deal of monitoring and feedback is provided informally as the work is carried out, whereby you are likely to make suggestions or give comments as work is inspected or observed: Although the process of monitoring and feedback can be more formal by way of job chats or appraisals.
Most companies will have an appraisal system which will review an employees' performance and also their potential, something which is of benefit to both employers and employees by improving job performance, making it easier to identify strengths and weaknesses and by determining suitability for development.
The appraisal therefore can be known as: a performance appraisal, employee appraisal, performance review, or (career) development discussion is a method by which the job performance of an employee is evaluated (generally in terms of quality, quantity, cost, and time) typically by the corresponding manager or supervisor. A performance appraisal is a part of guiding and managing career development. It is the process of obtaining, analyzing, and recording information about the relative worth of an employee to the organization. Performance appraisal is an analysis of an employee's recent successes and failures, personal strengths and weaknesses, and suitability for promotion or further training. It is also the judgement of an employee's performance in a job based on considerations other than productivity alone. The purpose of an appraisal can therefore be seen to:
Give employees feedback on performance
Identify employee training needs
Document criteria used to allocate organizational rewards
Form a basis for personnel decisions: salary increases, promotions, disciplinary actions, bonuses, etc.
Provide the opportunity for organizational diagnosis and development
Facilitate communication between employee and employer
Validate selection techniques and human resource policies to meet federal Equal Employment Opportunity requirements.
To improve performance through counseling, coaching and development.
Although the main objective of an appraisal is to review the employee’s performance, potential and identify training and career planning needs it may also be used to determine whether employees should receive a pay rise. Performance appraisals provide opportunities to discuss how employees are progressing and to see what sort of improvements can be made or help build on their strengths and enable them to perform more effectively. The review of potential and development needs - predicts the level and type of work that employees will be capable of doing in the future and how they can be best developed for the sake of their own career and to maximise their contribution to the organisation.
The appraisal is normally carried out on an annual basis and is an opportunity to take an overall view of work content and loads and the performance of the employee by considering what has been achieved during the reporting period and agree objectives for the next.
Task 6.1.3 Performance Reviews
Discuss the factors which will need to be included and considered in Employee Performance Reviews (Annual Appraisals).
The development of a person may require that they undergo training and the manager should be aware of the requirements with regard to the company requirements and those of the individual in order to ensure that the company addresses any skills needs. It is also is a positive motivator to ensure that personnel can improve themselves as it shows that the company has an interest in their betterment. Training is looked at in Section 3 of this unit.
Section 2. Dealing with People
Learning outcome: On completion the learner will: Know how to deal with people.
In the event of a clash of personalities it is the leader who must attempt to deal with the situation.
The leader must be able to gauge when tensions become conflict and when that conflict will affect the work of the team. It is at that point the leader must take action.
The first thing to do is to attempt to de-personalise the issue so that the difference of ideas or policies becomes central. This is not easy as personalities and issues tend to become intertwined.
If the conflict is between two people it is those two who resolve it. The task of leader is to assist in any way he can, perhaps by acting as mediator, or by applying pressure.
If this fails you may have to make changes to the team.
A problem can always occur if conflict exists just under the surface, some people may suggest that it is better to bring it to a head; others may suggest that this is likely to make the problem worse. The ideal is to have a team which is held together by mutual trust and respect, where they are friends as well as colleagues.
Another problem which can occur is what to do about an underachiever or someone who is not pulling his weight. The leader must be able to tell him the impression that he is projecting. A few examples may be necessary. A selection of options open to him should be presented.
Disagreement within a Group
In the event of disagreement within the group a number of courses of action are open:
Fighting and dominating - This results in a person attacking whatever is believed to be the cause of the problem, it is normal to blame others, particularly within the group.
Flight and withdrawal - The person may sulk or withdraw either physically or psychologically.
Pairing - In pairing individuals seek reassurance from other individuals.
Always in a group you should look below the surface at what is going on.
Problems can occur when a group forgets that it is part of a wider organisation. The group itself may work well as a team, though is not supported by other parts of the organisation. A group must never lose sight of the fact that it is part of a whole.
Conflict and its Effect
Conflict within a group is not necessarily a bad thing, providing it is a conflict of ideas and not personalities. Contrast can lead to clarification and different ways of looking at things, the group is unlikely to produce good ideas if everyone agrees on all points. Certainly it is unrealistic to expect everyone to agree. However, conflict is to be avoided as it diverts the efforts of the group from the task in hand.
Conflict between groups or subgroups has the following effects:
Cohesiveness - Each group will become more cohesive if it perceives another as the enemy, the loyalty of the group increases, however, if this happens within a subgroup it can divide a group.
Perception - This becomes distorted as the group see only the good in itself and the bad in others. This can distort any information it receives.
Territorial - A group can become territorial seeing things as belonging to it ie. its room, its job.
Conformity - A group may expect or demand more conformity from its members in order to increase its unity.
Atmosphere - This can change according to the urgency of tasks and the way that they are going.
Hostility - Members of the group can become hostile to other groups.
Communication - This reduces between groups as members do not want to associate with other groups or their ideas or view points.
Mistrust - Members of the group mistrust the actions and motives of the other groups. Politics become more important than the task.
Task 6.2.1 Areas of Conflict
Suggest the areas which could give cause for conflict on a construction site and the ways that could be used to resolve such conflicts.
Code of Practice on Discipline Practice and Procedures
Employees should be told on joining the company what constitutes an action that can lead to dismissal, who can give warnings and who can dismiss them.
Although by law only one oral and one written warning is required, ACAS advises four stages:
Final written warning.
Gross misconduct carries instant dismissal.
Warnings must be recorded and confirmed by employee.
If in doubt of the facts of an incident the employee should be suspended on full pay while an investigation is carried out.
Employees must have the right to appeal against a warning that could lead to dismissal. An appeal must not be made to the person who issued the warning or dismissal.
A Grievance procedure should be set up by the company for individuals that it employs.
6.2.3 Grievance Procedures
There is a requirement according to the Contract of Employment Acts that an employee is given a statement of their terms and conditions, they should also be made aware of the grievance procedures within the organisation.
The grievance procedure is the mechanism through which the employee can raise with the employer, matters which he feels personally aggrieved about.
The procedure normally requires the aggrieved person to raise the issue with his immediate supervisor. If the matter is not resolved it can be taken to the supervisors superior in the form of a grievance interview where the employee puts forward the grounds that he has for perceiving his grievance.
The employee may be accompanied by a friend or his union representative if he so wishes. The interviewer should obtain as much information as possible prior to the interview as the interview tends to be a discussion of the problem and the ways that may resolve it. The resolution may be agreed on a once-off basis, in which case it will not form any basis which will bind their future conduct or it can be a formal agreement which will have an affect on future conduct for everyone in the organisation.
At the end of the interview the interviewer will confirm what has been agreed and how it will be put into operation.
In many cases the interviewer may need to obtain more information or may have to investigate certain aspects or facts. In that case, the employee should be informed within a set period of time i.e. 5 working days, of the outcome.
If an agreement cannot be reached the interviewer will outline the next stage of the procedure to the employee. This would be to put the matter to his superior’s superior. This can, in the event of the employee still not being happy with the outcome, be put to that persons superior as that in all the employee has put his case three times.
Task 6.2.2 Grievance Procedure
Outline the employee company Grievance Procedures and how disciplinary procedures are enforced within an organisation.
6.2.4 Employment Legislation
If a company employs personnel it will be affected by employment legislation which it must conform to. This includes the following areas:
Contracts of Employment - All employees must be given a contract of employment specifying the terms of their employment.
Anti-discrimination provision (gender, race, disability, age) – All employees must be treated fairly without biases.
Working hours, pay and holiday entitlement – the law lays down restriction on working hours and a minimum rate of pay and amount of holiday entitlement.
Sickness absence and sick pay – employees are entitled to time off and pay in the event of them having to take time off work due to sickness.
Data protection – Restriction exist which controls the retention and usage of data relating to all personnel.
Health & Safety – An employer has a duty with regard to Health and Safety off all those it employs or who come into contact with the company.
Sector Legislation – a number of other pieces of legislation relate to specific sectors within the work environment.
Task 6.2.3 Employment Legislation
Discuss the challenges posed by Employment Legislation that construction managers face in the work place.
Section 3. Programmes for Operations
Learning outcome: On completion the learner will: Know how to assess and arrange training and development.
6.3.1 Training Benefits
6.3.2 Training Needs
6.3.3 Continued Professional Development (CPD)
6.3.1 Training Benefits
The benefits of increased knowledge, understanding and competence and the level accomplished are largely assessed by consideration of the initial aspirations of the individual and needs of the role for which they are employed.
Certainly in order to progress within your job you will need to obtain the appropriate qualifications, knowledge and skills appropriate for the level that you wish to obtain.
Some companies will support employees with their career development and it is important that the employee displays the desired personal characteristics which will convince the employer of the individual’s commitment and enthusiasm; not only to satisfy the employee’s present role but also the potential of the employee for promotion. It is the individual’s ability to select the required personal characteristics applicable to the situation under consideration rather than display the same characteristics as a continuum, which will enhance their value to the employer.
The acquisition of academic qualifications and qualifications based upon proof of competence to perform a job will, with increased maturity and experience, improve the reasoning and decision making abilities of an individual and thus result in an increase in performance within the work situation.
Membership of the professional bodies and the use of designatory letters are a mark of excellence and provide the opportunity to communicate and interact with people sharing a common interest. Service to the professional Institute / institution at local, regional or national level is an opportunity to demonstrate managerial competence.
The analysis of the performance of employees in particular those in a management or supervisory role is now well established in most organisations and can considered as a means of determining how employees are performing in the workplace. When linked with employee participation it provides an opportunity for both sides to exchange views and comments and set targets to be achieved. Performance reviews are nothing new but the formalisation of them has been driven by employment legislation.
Within all industry there exists constant and increasing pressure to meet targets whether these are written down or implied; the target may be a programme, a financial budget, a code of practice, a quality required; merely to give some examples; the list of targets implied or committed to paper is endless and dependent upon the sphere of work and the individual. Performance reviews should increase the capabilities and professionalism of the individual and support, enhance and promote the organization's aims and objectives.
Before an employee of any status within the organisation can be part of a performance review it is important that the individual has been made fully aware of what is expected of them in order to meet the needs of the organisation.
Evaluation can take place by a variety of means but Key Performance Indicators (KPI) are usual in evaluating the individual and organisation; they apply at organizational and individual levels.
It is important that KPI are carefully chosen to meet the requirements of the individual and the aspirations of the employee; hence consultation at all levels and with individuals important if an effective KPI are to be formulated, accepted and effective.
KPI should not be used in a draconian manner; they are tools of management which are used with and through people. It is important to remember when implementing and applying performance reviews that many Managers are in favour of the increased control these provide but are less keen when such measures are applied to them.
Task 6.3.1 Work-based Learning
Discuss the benefits which can be obtained through work-based learning and how performance management can be measured and evaluated.
Training needs for Managers
There are several approaches that can be taken with regards to developmental needs for managers and employees. The main factor that managers should consider is that training and development should enhance the organisations well being. This should highlight that greater emphasis needs to be devoted to identifying the strengths of employees, and building on them, rather than concentrating on weaknesses. This can be seen as a five-stage approach:
Motivational thrust - find out what the individual wants and see how this can link in with what the organisation needs.
Abilities - identify what the individual might be capable of doing if s/he had the opportunity.
Subject matter - determine what subject has to be learnt, and how interested is the employee in that aspect.
Circumstances - the learning environment, the individual’s ability to integrate, teaching methods, organisational and individual needs.
Relationships - ascertain if the individual work well in groups, or alone. Would s/he learn better within the organisation or at some external site (e.g. a local college)?
Returns expected from Training
A reduction in trainees’ learning time and therefore, reduced costs of learning
Reduction in breakdowns or stoppages and, therefore, reduced down time for plant and equipment, leading to higher output
A reduction in wasted and scrapped material
A reduction in accidents and associated costs and lost time
A reduction in failure to meet targets/deadlines, potential greater profitability
Improvements in quality standards
Investment in training is an indication to an employee that they are valued. However, there is always the danger that some managers see training as just a cost, and not as an investment. Often, managers are afraid that they will pay for someone to be trained only to lose them to an organisation that will pay higher rates to a trained individual. Indeed some organisations specifically look for employees who have already been trained at someone else's expense.
Costs of Training
These may be direct and indirect costs
Cost of course
Wages for training staff
Incurred costs to trainee i.e. travelling
Depreciation of training equipment
No productivity of staff during training
Materials used for training
Apportioning of other overhead costs ie electric
Training in Relation to Manpower Planning
Manpower planning may require training in five situations:
to improve performance in existing jobs where it is not satisfactory
to provide for future changes in the content of existing jobs
to provide training for new employees
to provide to actual or intended staff promotions
to provide for the creation of totally new jobs
Systems Approach to Training
There are four stages to the systems approach to training:
This looks at the operational training needs, its current and future requirements. It will look at the aims and objectives with regard to its policies, finance, production, marketing, plant, areas of work and match these against its existing and future work force. It will then decide if there are any requirements for additional skills and what these are; it will then consider the best option of either recruiting additional staff or training existing staff or both.
This looks at who needs to be trained, in what order, to what standard. It decides what the trainee needs to learn (Individual Training Needs). A training need is the gap which exists between the skills, knowledge and attitudes necessary for the effective performance in the job or skill and the standards which are already possessed by the person who will carry out the job.
Training needs should be expressed in terms of skills/knowledge/attitudes as this is the way that the most appropriate training methods can be identified.
This sets the training objectives and plans the content of the planned training. This will affect the type of training method used.
Setting the objectives involves identifying the performance expected to a specified standard, within a specified time.
When planning the training the facilities available must be considered. This will include finance, resources and time.
This is defined as: the measurement of the total value of a training course or programme, in the context of improving effective performance towards company objectives.
Included in the evaluation process is that of Validation. Validation is: a series of control tests carried out on the trainees, designed to ascertain whether the training has achieved its aim (ie has been successful in teaching what it set out to teach).
6.3.2 Continued Professional Development
Continuing Professional Development (CPD) or Continuing Professional Education (CPE) is the means by which members of professional associations maintain, improve and broaden their knowledge and skills and develop the personal qualities required in their professional lives. CPD is defined as a commitment to structured skills enhancement and personal or professional competence.
The Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) describe CPD as:
“ a combination of approaches, ideas and techniques that will help you manage your own learning and growth. The focus of CPD is firmly on results – the benefits that professional development can bring you in the real world. Perhaps the most important message is that one size doesn’t fit all. Wherever you are in your career now, and whatever you want to achieve, your CPD should be exactly that: yours”.
All institutes and institutions require the formal recording of CPD activities and most have a policy which involves random sampling of members CPD records.
Membership of the professional bodies and the use of designatory letters are a mark of excellence and provide the opportunity to communicate and interact with people sharing a common interest. Service to the professional Institute or Institution at local, regional or national level is an opportunity to demonstrate managerial competence: Though any advancement through the grades of membership will need to demonstrate progression and a commitment to personal development, which can be shown by CPD.
Local and regional committees usually comprise all grades of membership from Student to Fellow and early participation in their activities can be a most rewarding learning activity and ensure early recognition of self.
Most professional bodies offer courses of training and learning opportunities to provide knowledge and understanding within the specialism they represent and promote.
Work based learning provides experience, proves competence to perform in the workplace and allows the individual to progress at their own rate in the presence of fellow practitioners who can provide mentoring and guidance during the period of career development and subsequently during CPD activities.
Professional Institutes and Institution Requirements
All Professional Institutes and Institutions require their members to undertake training and personal development throughout their working lives, this is known as Continuing Professional Development (CPD).
The Chartered Institute of Building (CIOB)
The Chartered Institute of Building state that:
"CPD is a key part of professional life for any CIOB member and underpins the value of the professional qualification".
Every member has an obligation under Rule 13 of the CIOB Rules of Professional Competence and Conduct to maintain the currency of the professional qualification through CPD. Full details of their requirement can be found on the CIOB website.
Task 6.3.2 Reason for CPD
Discuss the reasons that professional institutes/institutions require their member to engage in CPD and the methods used for raising professional standards in the Construction Industry.
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